DARPA's approach included investigations into endurance-building nutrients that could be taken in the lead-up to deployment, while also lowering a soldier's core temperature and boosting his or her mitochondria. Mitochondria are effectively a cell's power supply, fuelling it by converting sugars into chemical energy. Oxford University biochemists sought ways in which mitochondria could be altered genetically to have them feed off fat-based ketones, leading to much smaller, ketone-based rations being capable of not only keeping soldiers on their feet, but having them operate at their peak for days at a time. Initial laboratory tests demonstrated that rats given the treatment were able to run for extended periods of time.
Surfactants are classified as nonionic, anionic, or cationic. Nonionic surfactants have no electrical charge and are generally compatible with most pesticides. Nonionic surfactants are most commonly used because of their universal fit. An anionic surfactant possesses a negatively charged functional group and is most often used with acids or salts. Anionic surfactants are more specialized and sometimes used as dispersants or compatibility agents. Cationic surfactants are used less frequently, but one group (ethoxylated fatty amines) has been frequently used with the herbicide Roundup.
In January 2004, Major League Baseball announced a new drug policy which included random, offseason testing and 10-day suspensions for first-time offenders, 30-days for second-time offenders, 60-days for third-time offenders, and one year for fourth-time offenders, all without pay, in an effort to curtail performance-enhancing drug use (PED) in professional baseball. This policy strengthened baseball's pre-existing ban on controlled substances , including steroids, which has been in effect since 1991.  The policy was to be reviewed in 2008, but under pressure from the . Congress , on November 15, 2005, players and owners agreed to tougher penalties; a 50-game suspension for a first offense, a 100-game suspension for a second, and a lifetime ban for a third.