Thesis on tinospora cordifolia

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Properties
- Considered febrifuge, vulnerary, tonic, antimalarial, parasiticide, and insecticidal.
- Studies suggest cardiotonic, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antiproliferative, hypolipidemic, antimalarial, antinociceptive properties.

Parts utilized
Stems and leaves.

Uses
Edibility
• The basis of a popular preparation used as cordial, tonic, or ingredient in cocktails.
Folkloric
• Decoction of leaves and stems used for malaria and fever and as a tonic (40 gms to pint of boiling water).
• Scabies: Crush fresh stem and apply juice over the affected.
• Tropical ulcers and wound healing: Decoction of the stem as wash, or crush stem, soak in oil for 12 hours and apply oil extract on affected areas.
• Pounded stem, mixed with coconut oil, has been used for a variety of rheumatic and arthritic complaints; also for abdominal colic.
• Used for athlete's foot.
• Used for fertility regulation.
• Preparation with coconut oil use as cure for rheumatism; also for flatulence ( kabag ) in children.
• Decoction or powder form of plant used as febrifuge. Decoction of stem used as vulnerary for itches, ordinary and cancerous wounds.
• Aqueous extract used for treatment of stomach trouble, indigestion, and diarrhea.
• Rheumatism and flatulence: mixture of the vine with oil. Cut 100 gms of the vine in small pieces, mix with 3 ounces of coconut oil. Place in bottle and "cook" under the sun for 5-7 days.
• For stomach ulcers: stem is pounded inside a plastic bag, water is added, strained, and drank once daily. Also, stems are dried, thinly sliced, decocted, then drank.
• Used by nursing mothers to assist in weaning infants off breast-feeding. The bitter juice of the stem is applied to the nipple area causing the infant's aversion to breast-feeding and facilitating transfer to breast feeding.
• Internally, used as tonic and antimalarial; externally, as parasiticide.
• In Malaysia , extract taken orally to treat hyperglycemia. Also, used for treatment of malaria.
• In Thailand , wood decoction used for diabetes, fever and to reduce thirst; also used as appetizer.
Others
• As pesticide (rice blackbugs, rice green leafhoppers, rice stem borers) using pounded chopped vines stirred in one liter of water and sprayed on seedlings before transplanting or soaking the seedlings overnight before transplanting.
• Makabuhay, with madre de cacao and hot red pepper extract in water sprayed on rice plants at weekly intervals.
New applications
- Being studied for it possible stimulant effect on the immune system. Anecdotal benefits for a variety of HIV-related complaints.
Recent uses and preparations
• Used Preparation of ointment: Wash and chop 1/2 glass of stem. Sauté chopped stem on low fire for about five minutes in one glass of coconut oil. Remove the stems then add half a glass of grated white candle wax. When the wax is melted, pour
into clean bottle and label. Use the ointment over the whole body, save the face area, for three consecutive nights.

Medicinal Use
Young leaves increases the flow of milk. Pods for intestinal parasitism.
Constipation: Leaves and fruit
Decoction of boiled roots used to wash sores and ulcers.
Decoction of the bark used for excitement, restlessness.
Pounded roots used as poultice for inflammatory swelling.
Juice of roots is used for otalgia.
Decoction of roots is use as gargle for hoarseness and sore throat.
Boiled leaves used to help increase lactation.
Seeds for hypertension, gout, asthma, hiccups, and as a diuretic.
Rheumatic complaints: Decoction of seeds; or, powdered roasted seeds applied to affected area.
Juice of the root with milk used for asthma, hiccups, gout, lumbago.
Poultice of leaves applied for glandular swelling.
Pounded fresh leaves mixed with coconut oil applied to wounds and cuts.
The flowers boiled with soy milk thought to have aphrodisiac quality.

Important bacterial diseases affecting animals and thereby affecting the socio-economic status of any country include anthrax ( Bacillus anthracis ); haemorrhagic septicaemia ( Pasteurella multocida ); Brucellosis ( Brucella abortus , B. mellitensis ); tuberculosis ( Mycobacterium bovis ); Johne’s disease ( Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ); listeriosis ( Listeria monocytogenes ); leptospirosis (Leptospires); campylobacteriosis ( Campylobacter spp.); glanders ( Burkholderia mallei ); swine erysipelas ( Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae ); actinomycosis ( Actinomyces bovis ); actinobacillosis ( Actinobacillus lignieresii ), black quarter, mastitis and others ( Jones et al ., 2008 ; Deb et al ., 2013 ; Dhama et al ., 2013b , 2014 ; Singh et al ., 2014 ; Verma et al ., 2014a , b ). Important bacterial diseases of poultry are bacillary white diarrhea ( Salmonella pullorum ); fowl typhoid ( Salmonella gallinarum ); fowl cholera ( Pasteurella multocida ); Escherichia coli infections; infectious coryza ( Haemophillus paragallinarum ), tuberculosis ( M. avium complex); chronic respiratory disease ( Mycoplasma gallisepticum ); avian spirochaetosis ( Borrelia anserina ) and psittacosis ( Chlamydophilla psittaci ) ( Saif et al ., 2003 ; Kataria et al ., 2005 ; Kabir, 2010 ; Dhama et al ., 2011 ; 2013b , 2014 ). Important infectious diseases affecting humans include tuberculosis ( M. tuberculosis ); Plague ( Yersinia pestis ); campylobacteriosis; salmonellosis; E. coli infections; mud fever (Leptospires); whooping cough ( Bordetella partusis ); Ornithosis ( Chlamydia psittaci ); sore throat ( Streptococcus sp.); Staphylococcosis ( Staphylococcus aureus ), tetanus ( Clostridium tetani ) and others. Apart from these, several zoonotic bacterial diseases pose significant public health concerns viz., anthrax ( Bacillus anthracis ); plague ( Yersinia pestis ); glanders ( B. mallei ); Lyme disease ( Borellia burgdoferi ); tuberculosis ( M. bovis ); salmonellosis ( Salmonella sp.); campylobacteriosis ( Campylobacter jejuni ); colibacillosis ( E. coli ); leprospirosis (Leptospires), listeriosis ( Listeria monocytogenes ), chlamydiosis/psittacosis ( Chlamydophila psittaci ); Q fever ( Coxiella burnetti ); tularaemia ( Francisella tularensis ) and botulism ( Clostridium botulinum ) ( King, 2004 ; Kahn et al ., 2007 ; Wolfe et al ., 2007 ; Myers and Patz, 2009 ; Cascio et al ., 2011 ; Verma et al ., 2012 , 2014a , b ; Dhama et al ., 2013b , g , h , i , j , k , 2014 ).

Thesis on tinospora cordifolia

thesis on tinospora cordifolia

Important bacterial diseases affecting animals and thereby affecting the socio-economic status of any country include anthrax ( Bacillus anthracis ); haemorrhagic septicaemia ( Pasteurella multocida ); Brucellosis ( Brucella abortus , B. mellitensis ); tuberculosis ( Mycobacterium bovis ); Johne’s disease ( Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ); listeriosis ( Listeria monocytogenes ); leptospirosis (Leptospires); campylobacteriosis ( Campylobacter spp.); glanders ( Burkholderia mallei ); swine erysipelas ( Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae ); actinomycosis ( Actinomyces bovis ); actinobacillosis ( Actinobacillus lignieresii ), black quarter, mastitis and others ( Jones et al ., 2008 ; Deb et al ., 2013 ; Dhama et al ., 2013b , 2014 ; Singh et al ., 2014 ; Verma et al ., 2014a , b ). Important bacterial diseases of poultry are bacillary white diarrhea ( Salmonella pullorum ); fowl typhoid ( Salmonella gallinarum ); fowl cholera ( Pasteurella multocida ); Escherichia coli infections; infectious coryza ( Haemophillus paragallinarum ), tuberculosis ( M. avium complex); chronic respiratory disease ( Mycoplasma gallisepticum ); avian spirochaetosis ( Borrelia anserina ) and psittacosis ( Chlamydophilla psittaci ) ( Saif et al ., 2003 ; Kataria et al ., 2005 ; Kabir, 2010 ; Dhama et al ., 2011 ; 2013b , 2014 ). Important infectious diseases affecting humans include tuberculosis ( M. tuberculosis ); Plague ( Yersinia pestis ); campylobacteriosis; salmonellosis; E. coli infections; mud fever (Leptospires); whooping cough ( Bordetella partusis ); Ornithosis ( Chlamydia psittaci ); sore throat ( Streptococcus sp.); Staphylococcosis ( Staphylococcus aureus ), tetanus ( Clostridium tetani ) and others. Apart from these, several zoonotic bacterial diseases pose significant public health concerns viz., anthrax ( Bacillus anthracis ); plague ( Yersinia pestis ); glanders ( B. mallei ); Lyme disease ( Borellia burgdoferi ); tuberculosis ( M. bovis ); salmonellosis ( Salmonella sp.); campylobacteriosis ( Campylobacter jejuni ); colibacillosis ( E. coli ); leprospirosis (Leptospires), listeriosis ( Listeria monocytogenes ), chlamydiosis/psittacosis ( Chlamydophila psittaci ); Q fever ( Coxiella burnetti ); tularaemia ( Francisella tularensis ) and botulism ( Clostridium botulinum ) ( King, 2004 ; Kahn et al ., 2007 ; Wolfe et al ., 2007 ; Myers and Patz, 2009 ; Cascio et al ., 2011 ; Verma et al ., 2012 , 2014a , b ; Dhama et al ., 2013b , g , h , i , j , k , 2014 ).

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